Glossary of Metallurgical Terms

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Alkaline Cleaner
Uses an alkaline solution, usually sodium hydroxide, to clean residual oils and iron fines left on the strip from the cold reduction process.
Analog
Full-body electromagnetic induction testing; a type of non-destructive test. (pipe)
Annealing
The process of heating and cooling a cold reduced sheet to induce softness and formability. Two types: box annealing (Cold Sheet Mill) and continuous annealing (Galvanize Mill) Automatic Gauge Control (AGC) Computerized system used to control and maintain strip thickness; activated through x-ray measurement with feedback loops to control mill screwdown pressures and/or speed.

B

Banded
The 1" or 1¼" strapping that is pulled tight around the body of the coil to keep the wraps tight is still on the coil; not broken
Belly Band
The band (strapping) that goes around the outside diameter of a coil.
Bevelling
Refers to pipe; the end preparation for field welding of the joint.
Bruise
A raised area in the steel caused by an object going between the work rolls and bruising them.
Butt Welding
The type of welding that fuses the head end of one coil to the tail end of another, using heat, without overlapping the strip.

C

Chemical Treatment
A substance (chromic acid) that is applied to hot dip galvanize sheet to prevent the formation of white rust during shipping and storage.
Chemistry (of slab)
The chemical composition of the steel that in part determines the physical and mechanical properties of the product.
Chrome Treat
See Chemical Treatment.
Cleaner
See Alkaline Cleaner.
Cold Reduction
Reduction of strip thickness through the use of force rather than heat.
Cropped Head/Tail
Squaring of the strip by use of mechanical shear.
Crown
The difference in strip thickness from center to edge.

D

Dressing of coil
Eliminating any damage or defects from the outer or inner diameter of the coil in preparation for shipping.

E

Egg-Shaped Coils
Coil that is sagging at the center.
ERW
Electric Resistance Welding (used in formation of pipe).
Eye of Coil
The center of the coil as wound.

F

Firecrack
Raised area on the strip caused by a thermal crack on the work roll surface.
Fish Tail
The condition on the tail end of the strip from the Hot Strip Mill.
5-Stand
A tandem cold reduction mill.
Flatness
A workmanship standard which describes the deviation of the strip from a flat surface.
4-Hi
A reversing cold reduction mill.
Full Hard
Cold reduced sheet that has not been annealed.

G

Galvanizing
The process of applying a zinc coating to a steel substrate for the purpose of improving corrosion resistance.
Galvanneal Furnace
A furnace which is placed over the strip as it exits the zinc bath for the purpose of producing a fully alloyed iron-zinc coating. The furnace can be gas fired or induction.
Gauge
A term for thickness.

H

Heat Number
The identification that describes the origin of the slab (heat).
HNX Gas
A mixture of hydrogen and Nitrogen gas used to prevent oxidation and to "clean" the strip during the annealing process
Hot Rolled Band
Product as produced off the Hot Strip Mill.

I

ID
Inside Diameter (of coil or pipe).

L

Lamination
A term that refers to skin lamination, lapping, or pipe lamination. See defect/definition list.
Lapped Welds
See butt welding. A defect in the butt weld where the strip overlays.
Levelling
A mechanical process in which the strip is stretched beyond its yield point by bending over small diameter rolls. The purpose is to improve the flatness of characteristics of the strip.
Lift
A stack of sheared to length plate or sheet.
Looper
An accumulator where extra strip is stored momentarily to keep the center section of the line running continuously.

M

Mechanical Properties
A term that describes the strength and formability of the product.
Multiple
The resulting coils (mults) that come from the slitting of the parent coil into two or more mults.

N

NDT
Non-destructive testing. (Used mainly in the Pipe Mill.)

O

OD
Outside Diameter (of coil or pipe)
Open Welds
A weld that shows an area that is not fused.
Oxidation
Refers to the formation of an iron oxide.

P

Pickling
The process of removing scale through the use of acid.

S

Scarfing
The use of torches to remove surface defects from slabs
Seam Annealing
The process of heating the seam weld at the Pipe Mill to improve strength.
Shearing
Cutting the strip into lengths.
Side Trimming
This is when the sides of the strip are continually being sheared off while the strip is being pulled into two vertical overlapping knives.
Skin Pass Rolling
A light cold rolling operation that is employed to improve flatness, produce the final surface finish or texture, develop mechanical properties, and/or reduce the tendency of stretcher strain or fluting during forming.
Slab
CSI's raw material, which is charged into the Hot Strip Mill reheat furnaces.
Slitter
A processing unit that is used for side trimming or slitting into multiples (mults).
Stretcher Straining
Steel pulled beyond its yield point leaving a distorted surface; also called coil breaks.
Sulfurized Pickle Oil
An oiled applied at the Pickle Line (on cold reduced product only) which contains a sulfur based emulsifier which enhances lubricity in cold reduction and burn off of oil in annealing.

T

Tally
Form used by Shipping to record material sent to customers; used by Accounts Receivable for billing purposes and by the Traffic Department for reconciliation of freight charges.
Temper Mill
See Skin Pass rolling.
Tension Leveling
A mechanical process in which the strip is stretched beyond its yield point by bending over small diameter rolls while under tension. The purpose is to improve the flatness of characteristics of the strip.

U

Ultrasonic Testing (UT)
A type of non-destructive testing used for testing of pipe.